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Jogja Jogja tetap istimewa
Istimewa negerinya istimewa orangnya
Jogja Jogja tetap istimewa
Jogja istimewa untuk Indonesia
A few lyrics of the song ‘Jogja Istimewa’ by Kill The DJ. Those lyrics tell about how Jogja is special, from its landscape , either for Indonesia. Jogja has many ‘special things’ both for locals and tourists. This privilege is certainly inseparable from the history of Jogja itself.
The historical city of Yogyakarta is a traditional Javanese city founded in 1756 by Pangeran Mangkubumi or the first Sultan Hamengkubuwana as the centre of the Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat (henceforth: Kasultanan Yogyakarta). Distinct from other Javanese city, the city centre was designed based on specific Javanese cosmology and philosophy as manifested in its location and plan. The location of Yogyakarta city was deliberately chosen to precisely reflect microcosmos, whereas the plan of the city centre was drawn up based on the Javanese philosophy regarding the nature of human destiny. Accordingly, every component of the historical city centre of Yogyakarta has its own philosophical meaning.
The city centre of Yogyakarta is located in a flat land at the slope of Merapi Volcano. In the broader landscape, it is situated in between the Merapi Volcano and the South Sea or Indian Ocean which are considered as two significant elements in Javanese cosmology. To the east and the west, it is also flanked by three rivers each. There are Kali Code, Kali Gadjahwong, and Opak River in the east side, and in the west side there are Kali Winongo, Kali Bedog, and Progo River. In Hindu-Javanese cosmology, such a landscape has been perceived as a reflection of the Universe which consists of the Mahameru Mountain in the centre surrounded by rings of intersperse sea and land. It was the reason for Sultan Hamengkubuwono I to choose this flat land as the suitable place to build his palace and the city of Yogyakarta.
In such a landscape setting, the historical city centre of Yogyakarta was regarded as the microcosmos where human should live to abide their destiny. The city was accordingly planned to reflect human destiny as conceptualized in Javanese philosophy. In this context, human destiny is explained in three basic concepts. Firstly, every human being should know the origin and ultimate destination of human life (sangkan paraning dumadi) and follow that human life cycle. Secondly, during their life, human have to maintain the harmonious relations to the God – other Human – Nature (manunggaling kawula Gusti). And, lastly the duty of all human beings is to make the world beautiful and peaceful (hamemayu hayuning bawono). All these ideas are embodied in the plan of the historical city centre of Yogyakarta.
Jogja is the only city that applies monarchical system, so this makes Jogja special compared with other cities in Indonesia. This was the request of the people of Jogja when the Sultanate of Yogyakarta joined the Republic of Indonesia. The locals proposed the condition that the government should maintain the form, system, and culture of the royal government.
The specialty of Jogja is further supported by the legal policy of the stipulation charter issued by the founding fathers. On August 19, 1945, Soekarno who was a member of the BPUPKI and PPKI had issued a legal policy, but the new designation was handed over on September 6, 1945 to Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and Paku Alam VIII. The contents of the charter are:
“Piagam Kedudukan Sri Paduka Ingkeng Sinuwun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX, Kami, Presiden Republik Indonesia, menetapkan:
Ingkeng Sinuwun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwono, Senopati Ing Ngalogo, Abdurrahman Sayidin Panotogomo, Kalifatullah Ingkang Kaping IX Ing Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, pada kedudukannya, Dengan kepercayaan bahwa Sri Paduka Kanjeng Sultan akan mencurahkan segala pikiran, tenaga, jiwa dan raga, untuk keselamatan Daerah Yogyakarta sebagai bagian daripada Republik Indonesia.”